SAFE TO DRINK
When Czechoslovakia’s President Vaclav Havel visited Canada last February, some experiences strongly impressed him. For one thing, Havel later told Maclean’s he was “fascinated by Canada’s clean air and clean water.” Havel said that during his visit, “I was surprised to learn that I was drinking tap water. No one in Czechoslovakia would do that.” In Canada, concern about drinking water seems to have increased. Last year, Canadians spent about $150 million on bottled water and millions of dollars more on systems designed to treat water in their homes. The fears may be exaggerated (people kept water in the best bottles, like American men kept their guns in the best gun safes, just to keep it away from being contaminated). Last month, Maclean’s commissioned a laboratory analysis of tap-water samples from seven Canadian cities. Technicians concluded that the water from all seven cities easily met accepted health guidelines and was perfectly fit for human consumption.
The tests of tap-water samples from Vancouver, Calgary, Winnipeg, Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal and Halifax were carried out by Environment Protection Laboratories Inc. (EPL) of Mississauga, Ont. Technicians put the samples through tests designed to detect more than 60 minerals, chemicals and other substances. The results showed only two areas of possible concern. In Winnipeg and Ottawa, readings for suspected cancer-causing substances called trihalomethanes were within the limits established by Ottawa and the provinces–but above the 100-parts-per-billion level permitted as an annual average in the United States; the Canadian guideline is 350 ppb. (A part per billion is the equivalent, roughly, of one drop of vermouth in 500 barrels of gin.)
Despite that, EPL officials stressed that there was no reason for Winnipeg or Ottawa residents to be concerned. For all of the cities tested, said EPL vice-president James Bishop, a former director of the Ontario environment ministry’s water resources branch, “the quality of drinking water tested is very high.” Respondents in an August Maclean’s/Decima poll seemed to agree: 83 per cent described their drinking water as safe.
The EPL analysis showed that none of the most feared environmental toxins was present in detectable amounts in any of the samples tested. Among the substances that were ruled out: arsenic, mercury, PCBs, toluene, carbon tetrachloride (a toxic industrial solvent) and tetrachloroethene (a dry-cleaning fluid). Tiny amounts of aluminum were found in the water from six of the cities, but in amounts well within federal-provincial guidelines. Much larger amounts of aluminum–the Earth’s most abundant metal–are present in food regularly eaten by Canadians than are found in drinking water. As well, sodium was detected in amounts well within accepted health guidelines in all seven cities.
Although the medical risks from trihalomethanes in drinking water are considered to be slight, most health authorities have set strict guidelines for them. The reason: researchers have found that the family of substances, including bromodichloromethane, bromoform, chloroform and dibromochloromethane, can cause malignant tumors in laboratory animals. Trihalomethanes are formed when naturally occurring substances from decaying vegetable and animal matter in water react with the chlorine that is used to kill bacteria. In Winnipeg, officials said that trihalomethane readings for the city’s water averaged 65 ppb last year, below the onetime Maclean’s reading. In Ottawa, the annual average trihalomethane reading in 1989 was 112 ppb, also below the lab test.
Some Canadian officials say they favor tougher guidelines for trihalomethanes. Grace Wood, acting head of the criteria section of the environmental health directorate of Health and Welfare Canada, said that when a federal-provincial subcommittee that establishes drinking-water guidelines met in January, seven provinces backed a proposal to set a stricter guideline. But officials in Ottawa said that Manitoba, Nova Scotia, New-foundland and the Northwest Territories rejected the proposal. Still, Ottawa and the provinces seemed likely to agree eventually on a tougher trihalomethane guideline, to ensure the safety of Canadian tap water. Evidently, confidence already is high. [Graph Omitted]
PHOTO : VANCOUVER Takes its water from two protected mountain lakes. Water is treated by coarse screening and chlorination.
PHOTO : CALGARY Drinking water from the Bow and Elbow rivers originates in the Rocky Mountains and the foothills. Treated with chlorine.
PHOTO : WINNIPEG Water comes from Shoal Lake 160 km east of Winnipeg. A proposed gold mine could boost the cost of treatment, which consists of adding chlorine and fluoride.
PHOTO : TORONTO Lake Ontario water is treated by city filtration plants. Taste sometimes affected harmless summer algae growth.
PHOTO : OTTAWA Draws water from the Ottawa River, where it is pretreated with aluminum sulphate to remove yellow color and organics. Chlorine is also added.
PHOTO : MONTREAL Water is drawn from the St. Lawrence River. Treated by filtration and disinfected with chlorine and ozone.
PHOTO : HALIFAX Source is Pockwock Lake, 30 km northwest of Halifax. Chlorine-treated and limestone added to offset water’s acidity.
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